term Noosphere (often pronounced as noösphere), was defined by the
Russian Scientist Vladimir Vernadsky, and to some degree by the French
scientist Teilhard de Chardin, to denote the "sphere of human thought".
perceived the noosphere as the third stage in a succession of phases in
the development of our planet, beginning with the geosphere (inanimate matter),
followed by the biosphere (biological life), with the third distinct phase
being the emergence of human cognition, which being the most powerful of
the three, has proved itself as a power that is able to fundamentally
transform the biosphere and to uplift it beyond its natural potential. In contrast to the conceptions of the Gaia theorists, or the promoters of cyberspace, Vernadsky's noosphere emerges at the point where
mankind through the mastery of nuclear processes is able to create new
resources resources for living through the transmutation of elements,
thereby literally creating a new world. (ref: Noosphere)
the high-elevation environment of the Nevada Great Basin being poorly
suited for natural plant growth, the human potential becomes
correspondingly more pronounced in this high desert area.
as "winter desert"
Nevada Great Basin desert is one of three great deserts of the world
classified as "winter desert." This is high-elevation country
3,000-5,000 feet above sea level comprised of mountains and vast flat regions of salt, sand, shrubs, tumble weed,
with a record breaking climate. The summers can be as hot as 125 °F
(52 °C) and the winters as cold as −50 °F (−46 °C).
two other major "winter deserts" are the
Gobi Desert in Asia, and the Patagonia desert area that covers much of the cone of South
The Nevada subregion of the Great
Basin desert in North America extends across a 47,100 sq mi (122,000 km2),
an area of 14 watersheds that all drain into Nevada and its elevated
lands. This high region in the shadow of the coastal mountain range has an annual precipitation
of less than 10 inches per year which is sustaining a 'thin' biosphere all
across its various ecoregions, except those covered with sand and salt as
for example the Great Salt Lake Desert below.
Salt Lake Dessert
people see this area as useless land, and some see it as a natural paradise
of unspoiled emptiness where in a few sparse places nature is clinging to life against all odds.
However, one can also see this empty land as an opportunity - a nicely
level, unoccupied space that is well suited for development.
does one develop a desert on top of the world, at an average elevation
above 4,000 feet
above sea level?
question of options
Ancient technology does not provide
the answer here.
Throughout history water diversion has been accomplished by channeling water
from a high-elevation source to a low elevation destination. This
principle cannot be applied for the 1960s NAWAPA water transfer plan that
has its source at a much lower elevation (even with the great dams added,
that are proposed for Alaska and the Yukon Territory in
the 1960s NAWAPA plan is not designed to service the high deserts in any
significant way. The Nevada
Great Basin will likely receive at the very most a mere 20 million acre feet per year
(MAF/yr) from the NAWAPA water diversion of the upper Yukon River and
related sources in Alaska. But what are 20 million acre feet in a desert of nearly 50 million
acres? An equivalent increase of 4.8 inches of rain per year won't be able
to support any significant biological upgrade in the region with new agriculture and new cities and industries.
In other words, the 1960s NAWAPA is not intended for the Great Basin, by
for the lower elevation deserts in the south for which a volume of 72 MAF/yr
are allocated, which too, is far from being sufficient. This volume is
limited because the source waters at to 2100 foot elevation, are limited in volume
to slightly over 110 million acre feet per year, which is determined by the
climate of the collection area that is itself semi-arid in the range of 20-24 inches of
precipitation per year. In addition, the plan is limited by another
1960s overland water-transfer scheme from Alaska to the deep south, the Nevada Great Basin stands as a barrier
in the way, which far exceeds the source elevation. Thus, in order to get the water from Alaska
diverted to the
southern low-elevation deserts by an overland route, the diverted 'river' has to be pumped
up over the continental hump - the high-elevation Nevada Great Basin - before it
can reach its destination. All this adds up to a truly huge task.
The world has
large fresh-water resources, but since little of it exists at high
elevation the 1960s NAWAPA plan envisions a network of vast
infrastructures to overcome this deficiency of the natural world. The
1960s NAWAPA plan is to raise several high rivers in Alaska and the
Canadian Yukon Territory from 1200 feet elevation, and lower, to 2100 feet,
by means of a
series of large dams (900 - 1,700 feet tall), and then channel the water
southward through tunnels and reservoirs, with more water being collected
along the way, all of which is then to be pumped over the hump, the Great
Basin desert. The combined power of 32 large nuclear plants would
accomplish this feat and get the water to this point, to an elevation of over 5,000
feet, for its continued journey south into the low elevation areas.
modern technologies that have been developed in recent years a different
option unfolds. With the use of technological advances in power production and the use of new materials, the
main objective of the NAWAPA plan - to invigorate the great deserts in the
south - can be much more readily accomplished, such as with the principle of submerged water transfer
(moving water in water within thin-walled infrastructures) a principle that enables the use of 'local' waters from the outflow of
the much closer and larger rivers, such as from the Columbia
River and the Fraser River, that presently dump their waters into the
oceans, unused. The combined outflow of
these rivers adds up to 280 MAF/yr of which 200 MAF/yr could be easily
diverted to the southern deserts without any significant disruption at the
rivers. The thereby diverted waters would arrive
at the doorstep of southern California, and this with three times the
1960s projected NAWAPA
volume. In addition, the vastly richer water flow would be available 35 to 45 years before the projected NAWAPA
completion date under the 1960s plan. Also, to pump-distribute this 3-fold larger
volume of water from the coast across the southern deserts would require
significantly less power and bring it directly to were it would be needed for irrigation and
supply of the new cities that would then be built across the vast
biologically-invigorated area. Thus advanced technology options improve
the dynamics involved in accomplishing a given task.
the dynamics. Assume your task is to travel from San Francisco to Los
Angeles. This can be accomplished by taking a plane to Tokyo and another
plane from there to LA. This would be a practical option if no other
option did exist. It would take you two days, and you would arrive tired
and a lot lighter in the pocketbook. But you wouldn't do this, because
other options do exist. You could take the LA shuttle from Frisco airport
and arrive two days earlier. Or you could fuel up your tin lizy and drive
to LA, and stop at all the wineries along the way. This two would be a
practical option depending on your objective. Or you could board the
high-speed train if one did exist and be in LA before the shuttle clears
the runway, considering the security hurtles associated with flying and
the airport logistics.
what is practical? The long detour is practical if no other options exist.
In this context the 1960s NAWAPA plan was a practical option. But there
are other options available now to meet the objective, like taking the
shuttle from Frisco to LA instead of traveling via Tokyo. The available
options change the dynamics.
about the Nevada Great Basin?
a more powerful New NAWAPA
plan affect the Great Basin deserts that would be bypassed if the
Submerged Water-Conveyance option was chosen?
answer for the Great Basis lies in the same technology. The same new
materials would enable vastly more efficient regional water-transfer
projects for which the source lies at high elevations surrounding Great Basin,
primarily in the immediate north. Access to these sources is presently not
feasible, but with the new materials that exist plentifully in the region
itself, those limits fall away.
key for the new technology lies here in the Great
Sandy Desert of the Harney Basin of Oregon. This entire area is itself
but a small part of the Columbia
River Flood Basalt Province.
What do you see when you look at
the above scene? Do you see a thinly overgrown wasteland of sand and a few space
shrubs in a 4,000-foot high desert arena?
in this scene the potential heart of the greatest industrial and
technological revolution in American history. Beneath the sand and in the
mountains in the distance, and in those behind them, unseen by the eye, lies a
vast store of basalt in one of the largest flood basalt deposits ever
the Earth's surface, extending across the states of Washington, Idaho,
Oregon, and trailing south into California. The Columbia
and Snake River Flood Basalt Province extends across 163,700 km² (63,000 mile²)
of the Pacific Northwest with stores of basalt that are up to 6000 feet
deep and contain an estimated volume of
174,300 cubic kilometers. The basalt was laid down 17–14 million years
ago in a volcanic flooding event.
and Snake River Flood Basalt Province
exists in large quantities in the mantle of the earth, but only in a few
places do they appear on the surface. Basalt is a stone, basically. But what a stone it is!
It has amazing properties. It is nearly as hard as diamonds, melts at
'low' temperatures (slightly lower than molten glass), and when
extruded into the fibers it is one of the strongest materials known,
second only to carbon fibers. Just compare the tenacity (strength) numbers
(given in MPa - mega Pascal; 1 Pa=1kg/square meter). The numbers are, for structural steel=400, titanium=830,
glass fiber=4,710, basalt fiber=4,870, carbon fiber=5,650. While being 12
times stronger than steel in this comparison, basalt is nearly three times lighter. These amazing
qualities of basalt, altogether, enable equally amazing technological capabilities.
why basalt is not yet widely used, is society's reluctance to use its vast
nuclear power resources, and also provide itself the needed space to set up
the corresponding vast new industrial capability that utilizes the new material.
In comparison, it takes
twice as much energy to melt basalt than it takes to melt steel. However,
in the nuclear age, energy is no longer a big factor, especially in heat-based
processing where the theoretical energy factor is near zero.
example: It takes 200 calories to raise the temperature of a ton of basalt
one degree Centigrade. This adds up to 280,000 calories of heat needed to raise
a ton of basalt to the
process temperature of 1,400 degrees. The heat volume equates to 325 Kw/hrs.
That is the power needed to process one ton of basalt.
On the basis of this facts, a 1 gigawatt nuclear reactor would be able
to process 3,000 tons of basalt per hour. However, the heat that gets put into the
process of melting the basalt, can be recovered after forming the product
during the cooling of the product. Typically the recovered heat would be applied to preheating the feed stock. If only half of the
process heat would be recovered that way, a single one gigawatt plant would be able to process
twice as much material, or 6,000 tons
per hour. In practice far greater efficiencies are achievable. If the process was designed so that 90% of the
input heat can be recovered from the cooling process, a single 1 GW plant
would be able to process 27,000 tons of basalt per hour, which adds up to
23 million tons per year. This is more than double the output in
tonnage of a large-scale steel mill, and is four times greater in volume.
current world-capacity in steel production standing at roughly 1.5 billion
tons, it would take a mere 55 production units to match the current
world-capacity. However, with the structural strength of basalt being ten
times greater, a mere 6 production units would be able to produce the
equivalent of the entire world-supply of structural steel products.
above analysis isn't intended to suggest that steel production would be
displaced, but it illustrates the enormous potential of the basalt process
for revolutionizing the economic platform of the world. In real terms,
basalt would be used for products where steel is not even considered due
to its presently high production cost (in the absence of high-temperature
nuclear power). But steel production is not cheap either. Steel production is a complex,
multi-stage process from mining both the ore and the coal for melting it, involving
secondary industries for ore
processing, coke making, steel smelting, and so on, till the end-stage of
the milled product is reached.
give you a comparison: Steel making, and basalt making.
steel making process begins with the mining of hematite or magnetite containing
rock formations, for example. The mined product is then crushed and ground
into a powder that enables magnetic separation. The result, after the
tailings (60%-75%) are removed, is a concentrate that contains 60% of
iron, the typical feed stock for the smelting processes. In order to
produce one ton of iron, one typically needs a mix of 1 ¾ tons of the
concentrate (ore), ¾ ton of charcoal or coke, and ¼ ton of limestone.
Typically furnaces stand 30 feet tall. Traditionally the materials were placed in the
furnace in layers. The first layer was charcoal, the next
layer limestone, followed by the iron ore. Stoked in this manner the furnace burned
by natural draft. Now forced air is used, in blast furnaces, and the
charge (fuel and ore etc.) is continuously supplied. The coke burns at
an extremely high temperature by which the iron in the ore melts. In the process a
small amount of the carbon is absorbed. The limestone
combines with the impurities to form a waste material called, slag. The
resulting product is called "pig iron" that is used for secondary manufacturing.
The Coke that powers the modern process is derived from destructive distillation
of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. The coke making involves a high
temperature process (typically 1100°C) in an oxygen deficient atmosphere
that concentrates the carbon. Coke making is a separate industry
attached to the steel industry. In steel making, typically 4 tons of air
is required, per ton of
steel, which is either vented directly, or cleaned before venting.
basalt making process is simpler. Here 100% of the quarried material is
used (no tailings result). The quarried material is process ready (no
pre-processing is required). The process is non-polluting (no ash and no
slag are produced). The end product is derived in a one-step
process. The difference between steel making and basalt processing
appears to be of the same order of magnitude as the difference of flying
from San Francisco to Los Angeles via Tokyo, and taking the LA shuttle.
above comparison illustrates the inherent cost differential between steel
making and the nuclear-powered basalt processing, which opens up a whole world of applications
with many types of manufacturing not yet imagined. It certainly
wouldn't make steel production obsolete. Steel has many valuable
qualities. But the potential efficiency in basalt processing will likely
result in many more, and more efficient options, for achieving a certain
industrial product objective.
for the noosphere
For the automated production of housing, for
example, extruded multi-layer corrugated wall units and floor units, of
multiple types and shapes, etc. could be produced in single-step
processes, for an assembly-ready product that is requiring little or no post-processing,
which would also be light in weight for easy transportation. Consider the following: For
construction, the strength of steel is 10 times greater than wood, and
that of basalt it 10 times greater than steel and with a third of the
weight. The resulting advantage could totally revolutionize housing across
the world, and this so rapidly that the self-perception of society itself
housing is one of the basic infrastructures for human development. The commitment
by society to providing itself this infrastructure for free on as
universal a platform as possible, would be nothing less than a commitment
by society to empower with technology-infrastructures the advanced
self-development of its noosphere on which all aspects of development in
the world depend. This intelligently directed intervention would provide
for the noosphere an advanced platform for the further development of its
creative power that it might not be able to achieve without this
While infrastructures are basically physical (even
education has a physical component), their effects can however be shaped
in such a manner that they uplift the entire sphere of life, including the
biosphere, and above all the noosphere, and create a New World with a new renaissance
in the process, such as has never been seen before. Advanced technology
enables the needed infrastructures to be created.
are three 'levels' of infrastructures possible.
One type, for example, takes water from a water-rich area to a dry area to
enable the expansion of the biosphere. This is a basic type that does not
alter the biosphere, but merely expands it into previously unproductive
areas. The second type, is a higher-order type of
infrastructure. It is one that raises the dynamic power of the
biosphere itself, to levels of productivity and creativity that the
biosphere would not be able to attain without these manmade infrastructures
since the conditions required for this type of improvement do not exist
naturally on this planet, which can only be created by human action.
third type of infrastructure is of a still higher order by virtue of its
intention to create the same advanced conditions that would empower the
biosphere to enable equivalent improvements in the noosphere. With the
provision of free high-quality housing the noosphere would become
empowered to attain a 'density' of self-improvement at a rate that is not
statistically predictable as certain limits would then be removed across
the board of society that would enable conditions that have not previously
been achieved. We saw a bit of this dynamic unfolding during the Golden
Renaissance, which was rapidly torn down with the infusion of imperial
insanity before the noospheric development had reached a critical breakout
point where it would have reached the needed stability.
modern world the noosphere is rapidly collapsing, which is evident in the
collapsing physical productivity around the world and in the general
conditions of life. An economic recovery will likely not be possible
without an intense response to reversing the collapse in the noosphere. It
simply won't be possible to create a nuclear powered world with
scientifically enriched agriculture and space-faring technology, while
ever-greater portions of society live under bridges, or in slum
conditions, or are choked to death by rent-slavery. At the current stage
where the economic collapse has become critical and a recovery is urgently
needed the focus has to be on the foundation, the noospheric improvement
that creates the conditions for creative economic development. Fortunately
this improvement is not difficult to achieve. The power resources and the
needed materials all exist in abundance for creating the needed basic
infrastructures, including the physical space for a jumpstart development,
which likewise exists in abundance, and of course the technologies do
exist as well. All that stands in the way at the preset time is the 'hump'
of the currently prevailing 'intense' smallness in thinking that society
needs to get accross. No physical limits stand in the way.
a 2,000 sqft wood-frame house weighs roughly 50 tons. If this weight was
reduced to only 10 tons with the use of high-strength modules, which
should be achievable with basalt, a single 1 GW basalt processing plant
should on this platform be able
to produce the modular components for 2,700 houses in one hour. Even if this theoretical
capacity cannot be achieved, the automated manufacturing of 2,000 houses an hour (17
million houses a year) from a single facility, would go a long way in changing the living
environment of society.
in development dynamics
dynamics for achieving a critical breakthrough in all types of development
appears to be determined by two critical factors. One of these is the
factor of 'task density.' The greater the task is, the more likely it will
be tackled. And the second factor may be termed 'task quality.' The term
quality in this case relates a quality of objectives that inspire the
greatest possible cultural optimism (such as getting from Frisco to LA in
an hour at a cost so low that you can afford to go there for an afternoon
tea or a concert performance. The NASA moon-landing project was strong in
both factors. That is likely why it succeeded. Kenney said that we must do
it, because it is hard, and society was inspired by what the human being
can accomplish. It still inspires people just to look back at what was
accomplished in crossing the countless hurdles along the way. Just look at
what we did.
Adventure Begins - Moon Rise
Power - Man Power
to the Moon - Saturn V
off - Stepping up
Wasteland - A Treasure
task of providing free universal housing scores high in both of the
dynamics factors. It is not an easy task, though technologically much
simpler than flying to the moon. It also has the potential to score high
in cultural optimism. And of course, behind the scene it would create the kind of
high-power productive environment that would
the world. The 'economics' of monetarism wouldn't survive the shock-effect
of this development, especially considering that the houses would be given away
for free as investment by society into itself, ending homelessness,
poverty, slum living, rent slavery, and so on, opening the door to a vast
potential improvement in the creative power of the noosphere.
high-powered productive environment of the above type would instantly
reverse the trend of history. Consider the following fact in steel
production. In 2008, steel started to be traded as a commodity at the
London Metal Exchange. By the end of the same year, 2008, the steel
industry faced a sharp downturn that resulted in many cut-backs and
layoffs. Now reverse the process and multiply it 100,000-fold. That's the
kind of dynamics the high-tech application of basalt technology can offer.
Thus basalt becomes the
corner stone for the economic recovery of the world. And the turnkey for
getting this recovery started lies in the upper region of the Nevada Great Basin
where near-unlimited space is available for the new manufacturing
facilities, and which is located at a close distance to one of the greatest
basalt deposits in the world..
will likely also revolutionize automobile production, replacing steel with composite
materials for a large reduction in weight, enough to enable the
Super-Capacitor electric car to become mass-produced, which promises a 500 Km range and a 5 minute
recharge with already pioneered leading-edge technology. The
Super-Capacitor 'battery' might also be superceded by the equally
promising electric flywheel 'battery' that basalt fibers might bring into
the range of practicality at an extremely low cost, comparatively. A
flywheel running in vacuum on magnetically floating bearings, operating at very high
speeds, has been theorized to be able to store energy equal to the
energy-content of fossil fuel by weight. While the theoretical maximum
will likely not be achieved with basalt-fiber flywheels, a useful low-cost
flywheel system with endless durability for the powering of electric cars
and with a respectable vehicle range,
won't be far off.
Basalt will also revolutionize the aircraft industry, which has already
begun utilizing basalt composites. It would also revolutionize the railway
industry with lighter Maglev trains and infrastructures.
certainly, the automated basalt-based manufacturing would revolutionize the
housing industry. The automation can no doubt be so highly advanced, for
extreme low-'cost' production, that the housing, at first for the new cities,
could be given away
for free as a jump-start investment by society into itself, and thereafter
be given away for free universally across the country. The entire automated housing program wouldn't cost society a penny
more than it spends presently on a single military aircraft system, which would
all become redundant thereby.
The one single factor, of free housing, all by itself,
would completely revolutionize society's concept of economics. Every notion of empire
would fade out of existence from this point on, including its monetarism that currently
chokes society to death with poverty, impotence, and war, and breeds
corruption everywhere, especially in politics.
One of the first
secondary industries for basalt products, that one would expect to see being set up in the high dessert
areas, would be dedicated to the automated mass production of water
conveyance products, both for the submerged mode
New NAWAPA) and for the overland mode for local water distribution.
one limiting factor in the entire arena, of course, would no doubt be the limited availability
of manpower. Nothing eats up manpower more rapidly than a horizon-wide
technological revolution does, based on new materials and processes that are
orders of magnitude more efficient. Even the nuclear power systems
themselves would then be mass-produced to maintain the momentum of the
recovery into a new renaissance. The Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor
design would likely be most suitable for that. And to get this technology off the ground,
large training centers would have to be built, and linear accelerators for
charging up the thorium (via lithium) to jump-start the reactors. Unemployment, homelessness,
slum living, would simply vanish as if they never existed. The entire
employment level would be raised to a new standard of quality and
the line of this kind of powerful economic development the high-elevation Great Basin area
would see its water
requirements be met with (then) minimal efforts with the use of the
basalt-enabled materials. The Great Basin is flanked with numerous high-elevation
catchments on three sides, especially on the eastern side with relatively
high precipitation. High-strength
materials and some modest nuclear pumping will make the utilization of these
local resources easily possible,
considering that a large portion of the high-elevation sources are located
in the high-precipitation local area. The rest could be brought in along
the line of the New NAWAPA that supplies then the lower-elevation desserts
in the south.
While the Great Basin
area would require significantly more water than the 1960s NAWAPA would allocate
for it, it wouldn't require enormous amounts of it, even for its new
high winter-deserts being best suited for greenhouse-type
agriculture, less water would be needed for them as a large portion of the
water would be
recycled in closed-in systems. A revolutionary advance in biological power
may be realized with this principle, which has the potential to totally
change the productive power of the biological landscape.
the landscape below. Do you see an empty wasteland?
I see this valley housing a vast university research facility
the future, designed for advanced agriculture. I see
large portions of the landscape glassed in. I see behind the
glassed-in landscape the realization of scientifically
controlled environments for the purpose of empowering the biosphere
towards ever-greater productive capacities. We may see this happening, and
most likely fast, because we need it rather urgently.
With the dollar ruling
tonnage being the focus for agricultural production, rather than nutrition, our food has become
nutritionally hollow. For example, we pile harsh fertilizers onto
the fields that kill the soil microbes, and gain a product in the
process that is so nutritionally empty that many people find themselves urged to eat
more and more, becoming obese in the process of starving. A real
biological revolution would have to begin with taking the research process
back to what growing food is all about, quantitatively and qualitatively.
In this arena very little is happening to date. The wide empty spaces of
the high deserts in the Great Basin give us an ample opportunity to find ways to
Wah Wah Valley -
Utah, elevation. 4577 ft.
consider the basic fact that plants
are our main food resource. Ironically, we know far too little about the botanical
system that produces our food. For example, we don't know what the optimal CO2 concentration
for plant growth is, and what nutrients should be in the air for optimal
conditions. We know for instance that 440 million years ago, when the vast
proliferation of life began on this planet, the CO2 concentration in the
air was 18
times greater than it is today, which has gradually diminished. Even as
recently as 50 million years ago the CO2 concentration was still 6 times
Plants live by sunlight, water, and
by CO2 in the air. If one of
these is missing, plants die. But what are the optimum values? It is
highly likely that the development of the giant dinosaurs that may have
reached 90 feet in length and a weight of 120 tones, had been
by the abundant food resources that the 10-times greater CO2 concentration
during the dinosaur area would likely have produced.
the above context our current
agriculture is unfolding in a starvation environment. Greenhouse
operators, who have artificially increased CO2 levels from the current average
of 380 ppm to 1200 ppm, or even 1500 ppm, have seen a plant-growth increases of up to
60% without altering any of the other vital factors. A ten-fold increase
in CO2, coupled with the appropriate optimization of
lighting, heat, nutrients, moisture, and so in, may have the potential to start a whole new agricultural
revolution. And this may all begin in places like the above, the currently vast empty spaces of the
mankind, with the aid of technology, is able to to empower the biosphere
to a level of productivity that it cannot attain on its own in the natural
The idea of uplifting the power of nature with infrastructures, such as
with advanced agriculture and indoor agriculture, is a necessary
one that we cannot get away from. Wisdom demands that we do what is necessary,
and that we do it as efficiently as possible in order that all that needs to be done, can be
done, including the provision of the most nutritious foods possible, in
contrast with the many 'hollow' foods that are found today.
We now stand at the threshold where
we can do a lot of the necessary things with advanced infrastructures,
like indoor agriculture, that may perhaps even become absolutely essential in
the not-so-distant future.
Consider the CO2
concentration once more. If the CO2 drops below 200 ppm all plant grows stops.
Typically, the CO2 concentrations follow the climate trend, delayed by the
response dynamics of the system. Colder climates lead to lower CO2 levels.
With the earth now facing the transition to the next glaciation cycle of the
great ice age period that we are currently in, which might even have already
started, the natural consequence of lower CO2 levels in conjunction with
the colder climates that weaken the growing conditions, we have some
circumstances to look forward to. Thus, the technology for indoor
agriculture, which comes with the New NAWAPA, may become a lifeline for all
mankind in the near future.
Also, where would
we get the CO2 from for the
required uplift. Smaller large-scale implementations of CO2-enriched
greenhouse operations, like those spanning such spaces as the one above, might
get their CO2 from carbon-fired power plants. But this kind of pairing of
infrastructures has a
limit. For global operations the CO2 will have to be gleamed from the
oceans, which are by far the largest CO2 emitter on the planet as they
contain 50 times as much in volume that the atmosphere contains. The technology
for gleaming CO2 from the oceans would fall onto the plate of the university research teams that
the New NAWAPA would provide room for, together with new cities and
industries, all built up in the Great-Basin deserts where the basalt
industries would be located and the world's largest nuclear power
infrastructures that would power the new industries.
case for a power revolution
Great Basin, might also prove to hold the key to an even greater power-revolution.
Great Basin arena is significant in this context for its central place
within the New NAWAPA system. In a global scan, America's space agency, NASA, recently located two bands of large electric currents flowing in the
plasma of the ionosphere. The composite image below shows one of the high-power
nodes of this system being located almost right over the top of NAWAPA's
South American development area. NAWAPA's involvement in this region would give it
a perfect base for a new kind of high-altitude power exploration
utilizing new types of tethered balloons.
basalt micro-fibers in the 6 micron range, strong but super-light balloons
become now possible that would able to ascent 50 kilometers into the lower
parts of the ionosphere where the interface exists between the Earth and the
electric power streams that power the sun in an electric arc mode fashion,
which also surround the Earth. It has long been known that the Earth is
afloat in a sea of electric energy that pervades all space, and which flows in
vast electric currents in plasma streams. While this knowledge is disputed by the
masters of empire and their corrupt agents that control large segments of science, the proof
towards the practical utilization of the existing galactic electric energy is now
becoming possible - made possible with the dawning technologies of high strength basalt
evidence for vast electric fields that NASA has detected being associated with
the global current bands,
has been seen by billions of people in the form of lightning. Only the
connection has not been recognized until the evidence was successfully photographed
quite recently of a powerful electric connection between the ionosphere
and lightning on to the surface of the Earth.
credit: university of Alaska Fairbanks - credit Eastview
illustration by Abestrobi
a modern NAWAPA, with nothing but the original objective remaining for
uplifting the power of the natural system with natural processes, might
open the door for mankind's (now near) access to 'unlimited' electric energy.
The galactic power that is available to us is not as energy dense as that
which powers the Sun, by which the Sun shines. Nevertheless it is
evidently dense enough to meet all of
our 'puny' needs of Earth for all times to come.
is the great potential that the masters of empire have
labored hard for over half a century (by now) to prevent from becoming
recognized, but which is nevertheless a potential that cannot really be killed. Humanity's
grand platform on which it exists is its progressive discovery of evermore
aspects of truth. The unfolding of this platform may be choked for a season, but not forever.
The evidence becomes increasingly hard to ignore, in spite the thick
blankets of mythological perception that have overlaid what is still
called, science, and have crippled it natural dynamism.
potential therefore exists in the opposite direction, away from the mysticism of empire that
thrives by deceptions and outright lies. Our potential exists in the power of ideas, not money.
Advanced recognitions of truth have the power to close the door to the
dark ages of the past and the terrible limits that old technologies impose
that echo through the
Mankind's place is in the Sun. This
means, surprisingly literally, that we are living on a planet that is 'clothed' with the energies that also power
our Sun, of which the Sun itself is the most-profound evidence of. (See:The
the dynamics of the Universe
taller platform built on galactic power, we find the potential to touch upon a type of economics that is
to the most basic creative principle of the Universe as a whole. On the surface of
our Sun this principle is expressed physically in a process of creative
fusion where protons and electrons become intertwined in the density of
this power, to create atomic
structures that are 100,000 times larger than their parts. This is the
platform that the entire Universe is built on, from the smallest atom to
the largest clusters of galaxies. A hydrogen atom, the smallest of them
all, fits this description physically, as does every other atom in the Universe. The human
body matches this powerful dynamic model biologically; and the human being
expresses the same model creatively. The end product is the human economy
in which the dynamics of the natural model becomes evermore fully and
takes off the old shackles from the eyes of mankind. Once these shackles are
removed, there is no going back to the toilsome world of inefficient
processes. We cannot re-enter a world that has become too small by the
limits imposed by inefficiencies. The New NAWAPA must be of a type that aims for a 100,000-fold gain in
the living-power of mankind, which thereby reflects increasingly the dynamics
by which the Universe itself exists. With a New NAWAPA built on those dynamics,
the freedom of
the Universe unfold before us. If our eyes are set in this direction we will soon see those dynamics
to light in the Great Basin deserts, where this unfolding would be reflected technologically,
scientifically, economically, and most of all humanistically.
shouldn't be a hard task to achieve a 100,000-fold gain in a desert that
is a largely empty and barren land, which much of the economic scene in
the world has also become in recent years - a desert of homelessness,
hunger, crime, poverty, insanity, inhumanity, and diseases that are deemed
too costly to address. In comparative terms the landscape below is a
rather rich one, considering the humanist dessert the world has become
where a billion people live in a state of chronic starvation under the
blight imposed by monetarism.
Nevada Great Basin -
Here in Great Basin desert where nothing has changed since the last Ice Age, change is about to
begin with the dawn of the new basalt renaissance that has the natural
potential to unfolds into a
100,000-fold increase in the power of life on all levels and throughout
has it within its grasp in the near future to take us
to Mars. The Mars shuttle might depart from NASA's future Bonneville Space
Port. The shuttle, as an infrastructure, would provide us with a platform for biological research
on Mars of a type that we never had, or could have elsewhere, enabling
biological development in a higher-density cosmic-ray environment (see: Mankind:
Children of the Universe). In this
manner, by human intervention with high-technology infrastructures, the
biosphere may become enabled to develop its potential far beyond what it
may ever achieve otherwise, with it currently being limited to the natural
conditions on our planet.
Wouldn't this empowerment of the biosphere with human-technology
infrastructures qualify for a 100,000-fold gain in achievement?
ultimate test that would qualify us for the grand price, which would be
the ultimate measure of
achievement, would be found in mankind's response to the
coming return of
the Ice Age, as has been the case for the last two million years. Will we,
by then, have achieved such a great power in human living that the return
of the Ice Age return, which may begin
soon or might have already begun, will find us responding to it with a smile in our
hearts saying, "so what?"
moving towards this end the entire world
will invariably become one, joining hands across the oceans for the construction of the Great World
Bridge shown below - a floating bridge with high-speed rail service - all made of basalt,
connecting all the continents across the tropics.
What would be easier and quicker to build, a rail line through a 50 Km tunnel
under the Bering Strait, connecting the USA and Asia, or the corresponding
link from Mexico to Asia?
The answer is obvious: The World Bridge link
would be easier and quicker to build. The construction would be modular
and be produced with totally automated processes. The labor of relatively
few people would be involved. And the bridge would be located where the coming Ice
Age would have no effect on its structure, some place south of Los
Angeles, past the southern end of the winter sea ice. In addition the
tropical World Bridge would serve
as a backbone for economic development all along the way, supporting floatation-borne
agriculture that would be stretching south from the World-Bridge links towards the
tropical agriculture would not be biologically disruptive, as the tropical water
are themselves biologically poor, for reasons of them being CO2-deficient.
The tropical oceans are CO2 starved, even
though the oceans contain 50 times as much CO2 than the atmosphere does. The
critical factor in this case is temperature.
More than twice as much CO2
becomes dissolved into the oceans in the cold polar waters than in the warm
tropical waters. This is critical, because in the oceans
too, the CO2 is critical to life. Marine plants (e.g., phytoplankton) take
in CO2 and other chemicals from the sea water in which they live, with
which they produce their plant tissues. Microscopic
marine animals, called zooplankton, in turn eat the phytoplankton and thereby
provide the basis for the food chain for nearly all the higher forms life in the sea.
It is this tightly interlocked dynamic system that renders the tropical
waters biologically poor by the fact that most of the atmospheric CO2 that
is absorbed by the oceans, is absorbed by the colder waters. The
tropical waters are rendered thereby so nationally poor that some whales migrate to
the tropical waters where they find greater safety to
bear their young, but are unable to live there. The whales must return to the arctic
waters, as there is nothing to eat in the tropics that would sustain their
large bodies. If they didn't migrate back, they would starve to death in
the tropics. The whales know this. The resulting migration is an ancient
course the CO2 abortion differential between warm and cold waters that
drives the migration pattern, unfolds in reverse in respect to the CO2
release from the oceans. The CO2 release takes place mostly in the
tropics, and not in small quantities, because in the context of the global
carbon budget the oceans are the world's major source for CO2 being released
into the atmosphere. This interchange cycle is enormous. Approximately 90
to 100 Pg of carbon moves back and forth between the atmosphere and the
oceans (a petagram [Pg] equals 1*10^15 grams), which adds up to a volume
of 90 to 100 billion tons (the atmosphere holds roughly 750 billion tons
has this got to do with human economics?
answer is found in the New NAWAPA potential. If some of the release of the
ocean's CO2 is being trapped with infrastructures, such as within the floating
indoor agriculture system that would soon be located in the tropics, a
high-density CO2 environment might be created for more
efficient plant growth, without effort and for a more secure biological environment for
food production. On this platform we could snub the Ice Age, when it
reduces the natural CO2 concentrations to significantly lower levels than
we have today, with a presently unpredictable result, and a most likely
devastating one. We don't know yet what the prevailing CO2 levels will be
in the coming Ice Age environment, but we do know that in a cooling
climate the prevailing atmospheric CO2 levels are correspondingly
diminished. By developing a carbon-capture infrastructure for enriching
the carbon environment for the plants, with such infrastructure attached to the
floating agriculture in the tropics (something which modern technologies
enable) we would create ourselves a platform for a richly powerful biological environment
with such a dynamic environment that the coming Ice Age won't have a
significant impact on it.
with a failing grade
little foresight, the coming Ice Age should not pose a critical challenge,
a challenge maybe, but not one that we cannot survive. Unfortunately,
modern society has nothing that it can boast about, in the foresight department, as if the future was
not an item of concern, whether it be short term or long term. Society has been carefully
cultivated that way in order to prevent it from discerning the nature of the imperial dynamics that lead to society's total collapse in the wake
of the collapsing world economic system when the empire game plays itself
In both cases,
the hyperinflationary collapse of its economy in the short term, or the
critical Ice Age challenge in the long term, society's response
is the same: what lies in the future doesn't concern us today.
lost the ability to see with the mind's eye what the physical eye cannot
see, in both cases. Thus, such terms as Ice Age, and hyperinflation, and so on, are uttered
no more. We are mentally back to the time when sophistry ruled the world,
as under Pericles of Athens, and society slept, and then perished as it
did in the Peloponnesian War, including Pericles himself. The NAWAPA orientation should generate a wakeup call and put the
future back into the present. This method appears to be a part of the key
to Franklin Roosevelt's success who made it quite clear in his inaugural
address: "Where there is no vision the people perish," referring
to an ancient proverb from Psalms.
long as the future remains far out of sight, the
building of the World Bridge and its related large-scale floating agriculture
infrastructures will appear like an enormous challenge, just as the challenge to vacate
the corrupted politicians from their offices appears today right across the world and
up to the highest levels. What seems so extremely necessary appears almost
impossible to achieve, even while the world
is disintegrating by the effects of its prevailing small-minded insanity.
The Noosphere has been collapsing, not for the lack of its potential, but
for the lack of infrastructures that empower the human dynamics to ever
greater powers of achievement. We have become a failing society by this
poverty that breeds 'little minds.'
answer to both tragedies, indifference to hyperinflation and indifference
to the Ice Age challenge, appear to be rooted in society's inability to think in high-technology
terms. In one case the technology is expressed politically, and in the
other case physically. The New NAWAPA
orientation has the build-in potential to break us out of this rut on both
counts. The first step in this
direction, by a New NAWAPA, would inspire society's stepping away from the low-tech
1960's NAWAPA plan that would lock the world up for another half a
century into a low-technology prison with little to show for in the end
after 40 to 50 years. On this low level of commitment the political
breakout would likely lack the required power to become successful.
course it is much easier to remain in the familiar 'cave' than to venture outside
into the sunshine, as Plato has documented. In the early 1970s some
scientists pointed to the exit from the cave and raised some concerns about
the coming Ice Age and the need to develop the power to survive the
transition. In response the global warming hoax was invented that has no
footing in anything real. As time has passed since then, the concern has been displaced
with a callous indifference that has also spilled over into the entire
political world. But why shouldn't we be able to break this indifference,
on do this on both counts? By singling out one aspect while ignoring the
other, we deny the principle that applies to both, which gets us nowhere as
experience has shown.
of optimism is groundless
is no reason for us not to break out into the New Word, with a New
NAWAPA that offers free housing produced by automated manufacturing made
of basalt; where we divert rivers into the deserts via submerged conveyance
systems; build the World Bridge system; create indoor agriculture afloat
on the oceans, and more. There is no reason why society should not use and
great volumes of energy and advanced materials that lay abundantly on the ground,
and built itself a future with them. The USA all by itself has more than
900,000 tons of thorium available to it, enough to power a thousand 1 GW
reactor systems for 900 years, even while the world has space based power
within reach. And for basalt, the scene looks even richer. The Columbia River Flood Basalt province may be huge in
size and volume,
extending across several states, but in global terms this province barely make it
to third place. Russia has a far bigger deposit available to it, the biggest of them all, the giant
Siberian Traps that extend from the Ural mountains all the way east to the Lena River
and from the arctic ocean in the north all the way south, almost to Lake Baikal.
Traps flood basalt province
Siberian Traps extend across 2 million square kilometers – an area
roughly equal to all of western Europe. The basalt volume there is estimated to range from 1
to 4 million cubic kilometers. All of this is 100% usable
high-grade industrial material. Are we still thinking small?
second-largest flood basalt province is located in the Northwest Territory of
Canada, named the Mackenzie
Large Igneous Province.
Large Igneous Province
exists as a 'swarm' of deposits that occupies an area of at least 2,700,000 square
kilometers, containing a basalt volume of 650,000 cubic kilometers.
Its enormous expanse makes
the Mackenzie Large Igneous Province larger in area than the entire U.S.
State of Alaska., and also larger in volume than the famous Deccan Traps in central India
that consist of multiple layers of solidified flood basalt that together
are more than 6,000 ft thick in some places and cover an area of 500,000 sq km
(193,051 sq mi). The Deccan Traps contain a basalt volume of 512,000 cubic
cu mi). The term 'traps' in the name is derived from the Dutch word for stairs.
There is enough basalt in these provinces to cover the entire land area of
the Earth 50 to 120 feet deep, depending on the estimates. This is more
than ever be used. So, why shouldn't we start using the best that we have
to built our new world with?
there anything more that we need, in terms of high-grade construction material
than what presently sits unused on the ground?
Are we having hope yet?
My point is, we have no reason to wallow in
cultural pessimism, bow to poverty, grovel at the feet of empire. There is
no reason to be satisfied with anything less that the greatest imaginable
cultural optimism. Just imagine, a world without empire, without homelessness, and
without starvation, with food being produced without limits. Yes, all this
takes us back to NAWAPA. The once deemed great water transfer projects of the
1960s looks tiny in this light and rather silly in modern terms. But the idea
behind it, its orientation, still stands tall as symbol of cultural optimism that in those days was
strong enough to 'move mountains.'
plenty of reasons also to think big about
water, and this bigger than ever. A great volume of fresh water, as much
as 70% of all the fresh water in the world lies now within our reach by
means of high technology, if we
were to desire it. It is located in Antarctica and in Greenland. Its melt
waters from the great ice fields, in the form of rivers that run into the oceans, could become the
tap water for tomorrow in every city and on every continent, eliminating all the bad
waters, or lack of water that has plagued many parts of the world for
ages. We are about to enter a world that, if it wakes up, will enshrine the basic right to sufficient
high quality water, food, and housing for every human being in the world, in its
World Constitution. Why would humanity be satisfied with anything less?
Thus, here too, there is room in the world for a 100,000-fold improvement.
Why shouldn't we aim for this when we have the means
already in our grasp to get us there? And why should we tarry? The time for thinking small
and demanding too little is fast fading into oblivion, out of necessity.
A. F. Witzsche
NAWAPA - part 1 - greening the deserts
NAWAPA - part 2 - infrastructures for the Noosphere
an exploration of the 1960s plan
NAWAPA dialog - how to raise it to a higher level?
Wells or FDR
- contrasting orientations
a FDR NAWAPA - how would Franklin Delanor Roosevelt have responded to
- what increases the power of humanity
Infrastructures - the power at hand to snub the Ice Age
Age Collapse - a challenge to mankind to raise its humanist power
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