Five basic forces are known to operate in the Universe
These forces are mass and gravity, the electromagnetic force, the weak nuclear force, the strong nuclear force that binds protons and neutrons into atomic nuclei, and a still stronger force that binds the quarks into becoming particles the nuclei are made of. Of all these only two forces are known have an infinite range, which are the force of gravity and the electromagnetic force. The nuclear forces are known to be effective only within the small spaces of the atom and the subatomic realm.
However, the two forces that do have an infinite range are radically different from each other in their effective reach. The force of gravity is a weak force in comparison with the electromagnetic force. The electromagnetic force is known to be 36 orders magnitude stronger than the force of gravity. In addition to this difference, the force of gravity is known to diminish with the square of the distance, while the electromagnetic force is known to diminish only linearly. The effective force of gravity becomes therefore severely limited. It is typically effective only as a 'local' force on the scale of a solar system. The reach of the gravity of our Sun, for example, barely extends past the edge of the heliosphere. Anything beyond that, is effectively out of reach of its gravity, though some is likely affected the electromagnetic field around the solar system that evidently has an effect on the Oort cloud that is surrounding the solar system somewhere between a distance of 0.03 and 0.08 light years or 2,000 and 5,000 Astronomical Units (AU = the distance between the earth and the Sun).
While no direct evidence exists that the Oort cloud is held to the Sun by gravity, rather than being held away from it by an electromagnetic field related to the Sun, it becomes evident that even if the solar gravity could be affective that far, its effective reach would be a mere 0.05 light years.
The resulting dramatic recognition takes the force of gravity completely out of the picture as a governing force on the scale of a galaxy that extends across 100,000 light years, as our Milky Way Galaxy does.
On the scale of a galaxy, only one force remains as a generally organizing force, which is the electromagnetic force that is 36 orders of magnitude stronger than gravity and dos not diminish with the square of the distance. According to the observed evidence of the limited effective reach of gravity, only one option remains, namely that every galaxy is electrically organized. One can say this with certainty since no other force exists that is effective on the vast scale of the galaxy, and beyond it the cosmos.
Of course, the electric universe theory is disputed. For political reasons, electricity in space is not allowed to be recognized. In this controlled environment that science is presently in, a super-massive black hole is imagined to exist at the center of every galaxy, around which all the stars are deemed to be orbiting. However, since this is insufficient too, for the concept of orbiting stars to be mathematically workable, the existence of dark matter and dark energy is being imagined in addition to fill the gap, which however cannot be seen or be detected. And even then, with all the 'epicycles' added, the observed motions of the stars don't come even close to matching the known orbital dynamics that are observed in the solar system where the orbital speed slows down with the distance from the Sun, more than ten-fold across the solar system, while the observed motion of stars in the galaxy is nearly uniform regardless of the distance.
We are obviously looking at two totally different dynamic systems in this comparison, with differences so great that they cannot be hidden with even the most imaginary excuses. This does not mean that all there is to know is known; far from it. But it is also evident by the discoveries made that a lot of historic assumptions are false.
The motions of stars that have been observed in our own galaxy are falsely recognized. Visible evidence contradicts the notion of orbiting stars, including all the wildly imaginary excuses for it such as the "density wave" theory. The plainly observed shapes of galaxies such as the interconnected galaxies above leave no room for mechanistic concepts, leaving the field wide open to the recognition of electric currents in plasma - vast interconnecting electric currents that are powering complex and vast structures of galaxies.
What are deemed orbital motions in short-term observation, are in the electric universe the natural electromagnetic effects of self-twisting, self-rotating electric currents in plasma, called Birkeland currents. Every element of the galaxies is caught up the electric-current maze of twisting and rotating filamentary structures.
The nature of what powerful electric current structures might look like if their cross section could be visible has been observed in laboratory experiments. There, galactic-scale electric phenomena are experimentally verifiable in the small, because the principles and their effects are the same regardless of differences in scale. An example of this type is the observed rotating motion in the penumbra of a dense-plasma-focus experiment shown below.
observed motions of stars in the vast electric maze of the galactic environment
evidently reflect the motivating forces of basic electromagnetic principles.
Experimental work of this type has been performed in numerous different ways at the LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY
- See: PLASMA
UNIVERSE Also See:
The bottom line is simple for this reason. Unless one is steeped in mythology, one has really no option remaining, but to acknowledge the existence of the electric force (the electromagnetic force) as the operating force in a galaxy, and beyond it in the cosmos itself, because no other force exists that has the required long-distance reach, and is a force that can be verified experimentally.
A great volume of evidence exists that illustrates that the electric universe perception is truthful, and that contrary assumptions are mythological, by them being built on concepts that have no basis to exist in known principles and verifiable evidence, such as the super-massive black holes, dark matter, and dark energy, etc, that cannot be seen nor be detected.
Classes of Perception
The world is awash with a flood of conflicting theories and perceptions, which also affect society's perception of the nature of humanity. It becomes necessary for this reason to sort out the mess on the platform of a higher-level ordering principle by which the contradictions become resolved. Such a course yields two classes of perception.
One class is centered on a Universe of entropy in which everything is winding down and is collapsing. The mythological Big Bang theory that sees the Universe created in a giant explosion and subsequently fading into oblivion, is an example of the entopic class of perceptions. The other class is centered on a Universe that is in a constant process of development. An example of this class of perception is the Electric Cosmology that reflects the now evermore widely accepted perception that more than 99.999% of the mass of the Universe exists in the plasma state as electrically charged particles, which as lab experiments have shown is a perfect conductor of electricity, enabling vast flows of electric power-streams to pervade the Universe, powering the galaxies and the hundreds of billions of stars within each one of them, such as our Sun.
of the Gods
There exists presently vastly more evidence to support the perception of a development-oriented, universally powered, Electric-Universe (the Plasma Universe), than there exists evidence to support the entopic perception of a gravity-bound universe of isolated solar systems, powered by nuclear fusion processes that are winding down, and of galaxies that are thereby self-consuming and ending in a heat-death. The Electric Universe, or Plasma Universe as it is referred to at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is a universe that is not collapsing, but is expanding.
Composite with Chandra x-ray image of the Crab Nebula. Credit: NASA/CXC/SAO
One classic example is found in
That's nice fiction. But the fiction fails to explain how mass and gravity, the weakest force in the Universe creates the vast floods of energy that are seen throughout the Universe. It is far more rational to acknowledge the vastly stronger electric forces of the Universe (one of fundamental forces) for the large energetic phenomena that are observed, such as in the creation of galaxies and their expansion.
These forces are also observed on the 'smaller' scale, such as that of the crab nebula. Pulsating x-ray emissions, as they are observed there, are typical for electric discharge phenomena in plasma currents. Also, frequent 'brightness' variations have been observed extending right across the crab nebula (ten light-years in width) that should not be possible if they originated from within the vast nebula, but which are totally natural if the entire crab nebula is recognized as the phenomenon of a vastly larger universal cause, such as electric currents in plasma that are hundreds of light-years wide and affects the entire crab-nebula structure simultaneously.
Thus the collapsed-star phenomenon drifts into the realm of entopic fairy tales. As a matter of fact, the phenomenon that is seen above on a large scale is duplicated in the small in the common plasma lamp that is obtainable in toy shops.
What do we see in the anti-entopic Universe?
We know that the Earth is but a tiny part of our solar system, which is itself but a tiny part of a vast galaxy of approximately 200-400 billion stars, most of which are likewise solar systems (altogether containing the mass of app. 3 trillion suns). If we could see our galaxy from a distant vantage point, we would see it as a disk of stars contained in spiral arms that extend outward from the galactic center in which enormous electric currents flow that power the galaxy and every one of its stars. We would thus see a disk that is a thousand light-years thick and a hundred thousand light-years across, rotating at a speed of one revolution in 250 million years, driven as a unipolar motor powered by the intergalactic electric currents that power the galaxy.
Since nobody has ever seen our own galaxy from space, called the Milky Way Galaxy, we need to look to other galaxies to gain a glimpse of what our galaxy might look like.
Our sun would be but a single infinitesimal dot among the 400 million dots that melt together into a gray haze as we might see our galaxy. It would be located app. 25,000 light-years from the galactic center. In spite of the profusion of stars that melt together into a gray haze seen from a distance our galaxy is an extremely empty space.
For an example in scale: if a period "." on your computer screen were to represent our Sun, the Earth and all the planets would be too small to be visible, while the entire solar system would nevertheless extend a foot and a half beyond the edge of your screen on all sides. On this scale the closest solar system to our own would be located more than four miles away and its sun would again be just another tiny dot. So empty is our galaxy in terms of space between the stars and planets. On this comparative scale our "Milky Way" galaxy would cover an expanse roughly 100,000 miles across. To take the comparison of scale further becomes meaningless as we lose sight of our reference and become lost in the incomprehensible, because the concept of the 'big' that we have no rational reference for, just begins here. Our gigantic galaxy is after all but a tiny speck in one of the local clusters of galaxies, which is itself just one of countless such clusters that are grouped together into larger structures called "super clusters" that are arranged as filaments of galaxies that appear like a maze of foam, of with close to ten million such super clusters of galaxies are believed to exist.
However, there remains one factor that unites them, the rivers of electric "Birkeland" currents that flow in the intergalactic plasma that makes up more than 99.999% of the mass of the Universe.
Galaxy cluster MACS
J0025.4-1222. Credit: X-ray (NASA/CXC/Stanford/S.Allen);
The apparently vast empty space that our Universe appears to be isn't really as empty as it appears. It is teeming with this electric 'fluid' power. As you can see below, the Sun of our solar system is radiantly interactive with its surrounding space. Large streams of electrically charged particles flow from it, but also into to it - streams of plasma.
Plasma is a unique state in physics where the 'atomic' particles are not bound into atoms, but are free flowing like a 'soup' consisting of the basic building blocks that the atoms are made of, that constitute our terrestrial world. It is generally accepted that 99.999% of all the mass in the Universe exists in this fluid state, rather than in the form of atoms that make up the planets. Since, in the fluid state, the various particles are all electrically charged, thy carry an electric current when in potion. In fact, being fluid, they are nearly perfect electric conductors. For this function they extend throughout the Universe, in wide flowing channels. In their wide expanse they carry enormous electric currents, on a scale that a tiny wisp of it lights up our Sun, and every other sun, of the hundreds of billions of solar systems that we see as stars, or a haze of stars.
At the forefront of modern cosmology stands the non-entopic cosmology, the Electric Cosmology. There, the Sun is no longer regarded as an isolated self-powered entity being heated from the inside with an enormous hydrogen bomb furnace continuously 'exploding' in its interior. Instead, the Sun is becoming recognized as an electrically charged sphere of plasma and ionized matter that is heated from the outside by galactic electric currents flowing into it. The plasma currents are attracted by gravity and electric potentials and form a double layer electric sheet around the Sun from where electric arcing takes place onto its photosphere.
The incoming electric current density is such that the outer layer of the Sun is heated to a temperature of 5,800 degrees Kelvin, as if it was hit by a constant barrage of 'lightning bolts,' in the manner of an electric arc furnace. (Electric arc furnaces currently produce 40% of the world's steel - a 300 ton load can be melted in 37 minutes, and heated up to 1,800 degrees.)
The electric energy interaction is not always distributed evenly, however, as you can see. In some cases enormous plasma flows converge, and cause the eruption of gigantic 'prominences' that are driven by magnetic fields resulting from immense plasma currents. All magnetism in the Universe results from flowing electric currents. Wherever one encounters magnetic phenomena, one witnesses the result of electric currents, or simply stated: electricity in motion. Every form of magnetism, no matter where it is found in the Universe, has an electric cause. No other cause for magnetism exists. Nor do electric currents flow anywhere in the Universe that do not generate a magnetic effect. Electricity and magnetism are one. Thus we speak of the "electro-magnetic force" (in combination), as one of the basic forces of the Universe. And as you can see, there are huge electro-magnetic effects visible on the Sun, activated by vast flows of electricity, such as the phenomena resulting into the giant 'prominences' that are often larger in size than the Earth, caused by an interaction of the electric force and the electro-magnetic force, two of the five root-forces of the Universe (apart from the nuclear-strong force, the nuclear weak-force, and the force of gravity, the weakest of them all).
In the highly 'active' regions on the surface of the Sun, the powerful interactions frequently raise up loops of plasma (electric) currents. If these extend high enough to rapture the double-layer electric sheet around the Sun, the double-layer field (an electrostatic field) is broken (generally termed the chromosphere). The consequence of the rupture is an explosive outpouring of electrically charged particles in the form of solar flairs. The dynamics of these eruptions has been defined by Hannes Alfven a few decades ago as a simple electro-magnetic phenomenon.
Alfven's Solar Prominence Circuit
The violent process of a strong prominence exploding into space, ends up 'ripping' a hole into the photosphere where the electric-arc heating of the Sun normally takes place. The eruptions leave behind holes in the photosphere that are termed, sunspots. The sunspots remain until the double layer and the photosphere become re-established.
sunspot highly magnified
The sunspots are our typical indicators of extreme solar actions, and are therefore an indication of the intensity of the solar activity. The massive solar flares that leave 'giant' sunspots in their wake, have a positive effect on the Earth in that they add to the effect that deflects to some degree the ever-present cosmic radiation that the Earth is nevertheless bombarded with. With fewer sunspots occurring (less solar activity), the climate on the Earth gets colder, because increased cosmic radiation intensifies the cloud formation process as an effect of increasing water vapor ionization in the Earth's troposphere. See: The Electric Climate
The cooling of the Earth results from increased cloud formation, and from the corresponding reduced climate moderation of the greenhouse effect that is 97% powered by water vapor (less than 3% comes from CO2). Increased cloud formation uses up more of the free water vapors, and thereby diminishes the greenhouse effect. The whiteness of the top of the clouds is a powerful cooling agent as it causes a portion of the incoming solar radiation to be reflected back into space. Increased snow coverage has a similar effect. And the key to all that, is the effect the Sun has in shielding us from cosmic radiation. That's the factor that determines the climate on Earth, including the ice ages. It is known that during the last Ice Age the cosmic radiation reaching the Earth had been twice as dense than it is today.
The sunspots also tell also tell us a more significant story. They tell us clearly that the Sun is not heated from the inside out, but is surface heated. The evidence is seen in the sunspots (the holes in the luminous surface layer) that enable us us look below the active layer onto the layer below. The lower layer should be hotter and brighter if the Sun was heated from the inside. Instead the inner layer is colder (a mere 3,000 degrees vs. 5,800 degrees at the luminous surface). Being colder, the inner layer is darker, as is clearly evident in the enlarged image of a sunspot above. If the Sun was heated for the inside, the sunspots would be immensely more-brilliant, rather than being darker.
The enormously powerful electric interaction that heats up the surface of the Sun also causes some nuclear fusion to take place within the zone of the interaction. The fusion, however, is of a type that is constructive. It combines the inflowing plasma into atoms.Traces of sixty eight of the ninety two naturally occurring elements that exist, have been detected in the Sun's 'atmosphere.' The Sun thereby comes to light as an atomic producer, rather than a consumer. Its operation is the opposite to entropy. The Sun is intensely powered by vast streams of inflowing electric energy, attracted by its powerful gravity. (all electrically charged particles, protons and electrons, have a mass, and are thereby subject to gravity - which is an unavoidable interaction in space.) The Earth is subject to the same principle that causes electricity to be attracted by its gravity, though to a correspondingly lesser degree. Instead of heating the entire surface, as in the case of the Sun, all that we experience on Earth is the occasionally lightning bolt when uprising moist air reaches high enough for electric flows from the ionosphere to happen, that are then accumulated and transmitted by the clouds in the form of lightning.
Also, the immense plasma-electric interaction at the surface of the Sun causes a certain (partial) outflow of electrically charged particles to happen, typically expelled protons and ions, summarily called the solar wind. The solar wind flows in all directions. Its electric particles become accelerated as they move away from the Sun.
The solar wind has been measured in near Earth space at speeds, varying between 200 and 1000 km/second (several million km/hr), and also the particles are heating up in the process of their acceleration gaining temperatures in the range of millions of degrees. They give rise to the visible corona. In a gravity-only Universe, these accelerating and heating effects are not explainable, but in an electric Universe these types of effects from electromagnetic interactions are expected.
Nothing but electric interaction can explain the increase in speed of the solar wind as it moves away from the Sun. In a gravity-only Universe, one would observe that the winds slow down, and the particles fall back to the Sun. In real terms the opposite happens.
In real terms, the interaction of the plasma currents with the solar wind extends far beyond the visible corona. It extends to double the distance to Pluto, to as far as 100 AU (1 AU is ~150 million kilometers, the mean distance from the Earth to the Sun). In a very real way the solar winds create an electric weather system around the Sun, called the heliosphere that ends only when the solar winds are 'stopped' by the interstellar winds, this happens typically after their traveling for one roughly one year (based on 500km/sec).
The solar winds do not actually escape the solar system and flow out of the heliosphere. To a large degree the wind-particles flow back to the Sun inside a central plain, called the heliospheric current sheet that is typically 10,000-km thick and carries a combined return current of app. three billion amperes. This vast current sheet is aligned with the solar ecliptic and forms a similar central plain within the heliosphere, as do the stars in the galactic arms that form the central plain of a galaxy as illustrated in principle by Hannes Alfven.
The Sun and the solar system within the heliosphere, share certain common principles with the galaxy as a whole, though of course with vast differences in scale. The heliospheric current sheet is thereby deemed a miniature counterpart of the galactic current sheet, which Alven had estimated is upwards to ten billion times stronger.
Since our Sun is a rather mediocre star, the full corona that fills the heliosphere is not visible to us. However in larger stars the electric current-interactions are much stronger and make the surrounding coronas visible to a much larger extent. These enormously powerful phenomena, where the electric interaction becomes visible for large distances, are the fabulous Nebulas.
The nebulas were once deemed to be just clouds of hot gas. However, if they were merely hot gas, they would have grown cold and dark long ago like a light bulb that goes out when the power is turned off. However, this is not what we see happening. The nebulas typically keep glowing, possibly for millions of years yet to come (for all we know), being continuously powered, just as our own sun is continuously powered.
There are numerous types of nebulas found in our galaxy, depending on the intensity and distribution of the electric flow patterns.
Also at times the feeding plasma filament are clearly visible, both in the form of large inflowing pattern and also in the more complex internal structures. These patterns of flowing electric currents may well reflect also in principle the typically invisible but vastly larger flow pattern of the intergalactic plasma current flows that tie the galaxies of the Universe together into endlessly extending networks of billions of galaxies, of 'foam-like' structure of galaxies grouped into clusters and walls and super-clusters.
Electric currents have an infinite reach. Unlike gravity, that is the weakest force in the Universe and diminishes further with the square of the distance, the electric force, that is 36 orders of magnitude stronger, diminishes only in a linear relationship with distance. It is a force that enables long-extended plasma structures that typically become organized into magnetically self-contained filaments, called Birkeland currents, in which electricity flows in self-formed double-layer channels.
On Earth, we see a tiny example of these long and efficient channels, in the case of lightning.
Intergalactic space appears to be pervaded with endless mazes of similar channels, which we lack the means to observe, except in some rare cases, such as in nebulas where their effects are strong enough to become visible. Those we can observe abundantly in our galaxy and in other galaxies. We recognize them there as Birkeland currents by their typical shape. We can also recognize them to be the engines for star formation by their effects. The image below shows a network of 27 star forming filaments in a space of app. 15 parsecs wide - app. 450 trillion kilometers.
see: Twinkle, twinkle electric star (see a larger image there)
We can see enormously large patterns of Birkeland currents flowing in the galaxies.
In the image below, we can see large 'rivers' of electric currents flowing, in very large current-carrying Birkeland filaments that are clearly visible in the spiral arms of most of the more powerful galaxies, concentrated along and within the paths of the spiral arms themselves. Some astronomers like to refer to these filamentary structures as rivers of dust or rivers of gas. This may be true as these would naturally be contained in the plasma flows and even be created there, in ionized form, as a part of the electric plasma currents that eventually become concentrated sufficient for star formation to occur.
The above example clearly reflects the original concept of the plasma-electric Universe pioneered by Hannes Alfven a few decades ago, as shown below in Alfven's model below, in which electric currents are magnetically concentrated in the spiral arms of the galaxies, flowing towards its center, which is the star-producing region.
We can see the same Alfven structure, though fainter, evident also in 'small' galaxies, as in the example below.
In order for a galaxy's electric engine to function, a galaxy must have an electric recycling path between the galactic plane, its center, and its circumference, which is shown as jet from the center spreading out, in Alfven's model, with a return path to the galactic edge. In extremely powerful galaxies this return path can be visually observed, as is shown in the example below. The halo is not heated gas, but particles electrically excited with great intensity that generally increases towards the center of the galaxy that is surrounded by this gigantic halo. For most galaxies the halo is invisible. If the electric currents would cease, the halo would vanish like a light bulb darkens when its electricity is cut off.
Note: the actual galaxy in the above example appears to be an unbared spiral galaxy located inside the large ring on the same ecliptic, which itself appears to be a ring of plasma currents organized into a maze of Birkeland current filaments that feed into the arms of the spiral galaxies within. What we see here appears to reflect on the gigantic scale, the same principle that is reflected in our solar heliosphere on the 'minuscule' scale. It appears that the basic electrodynamics principle applies on any scale, in an almost identical manner. The Sombrero Galaxy itself lies within a complex filament-like cloud of galaxies some 29 million light years distant.
The image we see here has a special significance for us on our tiny planet. In as much as it represents in principle the universal dynamics of an electricity-powered system, it illustrates visually that the earth within the heliosphere exists in a high-density region of the electric power flow that feeds into the sun. The above image has been infrared enhanced to show up the active galaxy at the center of the ring. In the normal visible image the high-power region at the center is much more pronounced.
In respect to the heliosphere, the Earth orbits in close proximity to its sun, which puts us deep into the high-powered region. On a scale on which our solar heliosphere would be about three feet wide, as wide as a man can reach, the Earth's distance from the Sun would be less than a centimeter. In other words, the Earth exists deep within the high-density region of electric-energy that becomes progressively concentrated around the Sun. Being as close to the Sun as we are, in galactic terms, we (of Earth) are afloat in a vast seal of highly concentrated electric energy that we should have the potential to tap into, in order to meet all of our rather modest electric energy needs, and this for all times to come. For all practical considerations, we have thereby infinite, inexhaustible, energy resources laying at our feet as it were.
Our planet's own gravity and electric potential attracts a portion of the surrounding electric plasma in which the Earth has its orbit, which forms the plasmasphere, located just above the ionosphere, which in turn electrifies the ionosphere of our planet that hold and concentrates an electric field between it and the Earth's surface.
The evidence that there exist vast amounts of electricity in the ionosphere becomes visible when great thunderclouds reach high up towards the ionosphere, from which glowing plasma currents have been observed extending between the top of the clouds and the ionosphere. In a very real way the massive lightning strikes (a type of electric arc-mode phenomenon), which we observe on the ground, are plasma-electric events powered by electricity from astrophysical sources, that is flowing to us in the power streams that power the Sun.
It may well be that this type of solar power, the power that flows into the sun, will someday soon supply mankind's power needs and become the predominant power source, so that nuclear-fission power-systems become obsolete as an electricity resource, though it may remain as a valuable driver for efficient high-temperature industrial processes. (Nuclear-fusion power appears to be not possible as the needed containment power vastly exceeds the produced power, and even then the 'flame' blows itself out. Sustainable nuclear fusion has not been demonstrated. Nor is nuclear fusion found as a natural power source anywhere in the Universe - see: The Challenge of Mind )
One major question remains at this point. Where does the power come from that powers the billions up on billions of galaxies and all the solar systems within them? It is plainly evident that the galaxies are not self-powering, but are subsequent phenomena of a larger powering force.
With the development of more capable space telescopes, especially in the infrared spectrum, it has become apparent that plasma-flow connections do exists that are arranged perpendicular to the galactic plane with current flow filament extending far into space from the center of the galaxies (as shown below for galaxy M82). When our space-telescope technology advances further, we will likely be able to detect many more such perpendicular plasma structures as we can now detect for M82.
However, typically, the intergalactic Birkeland currents are as wide as the galaxies themselves, in which the galaxies are located. Deep space images of clusters of galaxies show the individual galaxies, small or large, neatly strung out in filamentary lines that are faintly visible.
The photo of the galaxy cluster ACO 3341 is from a collection of the first images obtained with VIMOS of ESO. ACO 3341 is located at a distance of almost 500 million light years
In real terms these intergalactic currents appear to connect all galaxies within their clusters, and on the larger scale also connect the clusters with each other, and in like manner connect the smaller groups of galaxies with each other as the one shown below.
It is rare that one sees interacting galaxies in close proximity to each other and so clearly interconnected. In most cases the galaxies are connected across long intergalactic distances of many millions of light years, even more than a billion light years in the case of interconnected clusters and super clusters of galaxies.
There doesn't seem to exist a single speck of anything that is not in this manner connected with the whole of the Universe. As one researcher has put it, "Galaxies are the luminous children of electrical parentage. Filaments of electricity can be seen everywhere: as static electricity sparks, lightning flashes, 'jets' of x-rays that pour from galactic poles, and the 'strings' of super clusters that make-up very-large-scale electric current structures in the Universe.
Birkeland currents are drawn toward each other in a linear relationship, with a long-range attraction potential that is 36 orders of magnitude greater than gravity.
Due to magnetic interaction, parallel wires with current flowing in same direction, attract each other. The same happens when electric currents flow in space as flowing plasma. The flowing currents are magnetically pinched together. By the pinching the current density is increasing. As the currents grow stronger by the concentration, the pinch effect becomes stronger too. The current density can thereby become enormously increased, to the point that star formation takes place at the pinch node points, or entire galaxies are formed there.
The principle that is illustrated in the model above, may be responsible for the fairly even spacing that is typically observed in strings of stars, and in strings of galaxies that we see in galaxy cluster (as above) and in the images of the Capodimonte Deep Field, etc.
The self-pinched electric currents may also be responsible for the harmonious spacing of the planets in our solar system. The astronomer Johannes Kepler discovered the principles underlying the orbits of the planets, which he recognized to apply to all planets> They are known as Kepler's laws of planetary motion, which state:
These laws are all deemed to reflect the principles of interaction between mass and gravity. But something about his discoveries had puzzled Kepler. He discovered that the spacing of the orbits from Mercury to the outer planets reflects a harmonious relationship rather than a random pattern. He related this harmonious relationship to the sequence of musical tones. He felt that there had to be a principle governing such an evident order.
This principle will most likely reflect an electric principle similar to the self-pinching Birkeland currents. It has been discovered that a large electric current sheet extends between the Sun and the heliosphere, right across the solar systems ecliptic. The discovered heliospheric current sheet carries the return current of the solar wind electricity back to the Sun. As on the flow back the current becomes increasingly concentrated, while it flows from all sides towards the Sun, the distances between its pinch nodes would become progressively shorter in a relationship that is very much reflected in the progressively tighter spacing of the planets towards the Sun.
It appears that progressive discoveries in the electric universe bring to light the causes for effects observed a long time ago, but for which the basis had not been established, which is even now only in the beginning stage of discovery. A great number of so-called astrophysical facts, based on short tern observations are evidently little more than assumptions based on theories, many of which are assumptions themselves and often directed assumptions under the political domination of science itself.
Unfortunately, much what truly exits remains still unknown at this point, such as the knowledge as to what ultimately motivates the vast power streams that power the Universe, which renders the Universe itself an engine of power. Here lies the threshold of our present knowledge, just as we have yet to discover what actually motivates the force of gravity, and also the electro-magnetic force, and the nuclear strong force. Gravity and mass, the most commonly experienced basic forces of the universe, the forces by which an apple falls to the ground and gets bruised on impact, remains an enigma in science to this very day, even at the leading edge. The answer to this puzzle may also, ultimately, have an electromagnetic component, or share a common cause with it.
Evidently our journey of discovery has just begun.
As our knowledge is increasing, it may someday be possible to understand the forces more intimately that are reflected in our ever-changing climate on Earth. Already one of the best theories that had been developed for this purpose, known as the Milankovitch cycles theory of solar forcing based on the interaction of orbital cycles, has recently come to a dead end as the observed evidence fails to match the computed imperatives. And so it should fail as the theory takes no heed of the vast electric forces that operate in the Universe, and of their dynamic interaction.
It appears that the galactic space, in which our tiny solar system is located, is pervaded by vast networks of plasma currents of varying intensity, most of which are far too weak to be visible to the unaided eye. What this maze of vast invisible flow-patterns might look like, if they were visible, can be gleamed from the incredible maze that is seen in similar electric-current structures of great electric density that we behold in the high-powered nebulas, as in a small portion of Crab Nebula, below. Such types of flow patterns evidently exist on every scale, throughout the galaxies and in intergalactic space and on the still larger cosmic scale throughout the Universe.
Now suppose that one of the tiny spots in this maze is our Sun, one of the 200-400 billion suns in our galaxy. Then further imagine that this vast electric maze that our galaxy evidently is, is constantly in motion, which a galaxy naturally is. Would you be surprised then that the incoming electric currents that power our Sun are always changing, and become subjected to a vast galactic 'weather' pattern of ever-changing current flows, and charge and discharge patterns, and oscillations in the current streams interconnecting the galaxies?
With these constantly shifting and oscillating current-flow pattern, the numerous short-term and long-term climate variances that we have experienced in the past on Earth, are evidently reflecting changes in the galactic influx that powers our local solar activity. The large historic variances, such as the ice ages, which have been observed in historic records, when seen from the wider perspective of constantly changing electric conditions, come to light thereby as the most natural occurrences. For example, the sudden freeze-up of Antarctica more than 5 million years ago, or the earlier one more than 30 million years ago, or the cooling trend that started the modern ice age cycles 2 million years ago, and also the short warming spells that gave us the interglacial warm periods and the present Holocene interglacial period, now no longer present an enigma, but reflect the kinds of natural conditions that one would expect in a complex electrically interconnected galaxy.
Also within the Holocene interglacial period itself, we have seen many major climate changes: such as the Holocene optimum; the medieval optimum; the Little Ice Age 'deep freeze'; and the modern day cooling trend that began in 1998; and the accelerated cooling trend when the 24th solar cycle failed to start and the sunspots gradually diminished from mid-2006 on, all the way to the present when the sunspots have almost disappeared for a season.
As stated earlier, the loss of sunspots, indicates conditions that have a double cooling effect on our climate. The loss of the corresponding solar fairs allows a greater portion of the cosmic background radiation to reach the Earth, which would otherwise be deflected. The thereby increasing cosmic radiation increases the ionization of the water vapor in the troposphere, which increases the cloud formation. Increased cloudiness causes colder climates, as more clouds reflect more the sunlight back into space. It also causes a reduction of the greenhouse effect that moderates the climate on Earth, giving us still colder climates in the winters and hotter dry spots in the summers.
Clouds are formed from water vapor. The process that diminishes the water vapor in the atmosphere thereby diminishes the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is largely caused by the high energy absorption characteristic of water vapor. Its absorption spectrum covers a wide band of the Sun's energy spectrum, whereas CO2 covers only an extremely narrow band. In addition the CO2 effect is masked by the water-vapor greenhouse effect.
Professor Zbigniew Jaworowski, M.D., Ph.D., D.Sc.,
Chairman of the Scientific Council of the Central Laboratory for
Radiological Protection Warsaw, Poland, states in a recent paper
that 97% of the combined greenhouse effect actually comes from water
vapor, with the remaining 3% being contributed by all the other
greenhouse gases, of which mankind's contribution is rather minuscule
The bottom line is, that whatever effects the intensity of the cosmic background radiation reaching the Earth, affects our climate. Solar fairs have a large shielding effect in this regard. However it is often falsely assumed that the cosmic background radiation is a constant factor. It is far more likely that the cosmic background radiation itself is highly variable, reflecting the ever-changing plasma interaction within the vast plasma maze that a galaxy is, interspersed with numerous Nova and Supernova phenomena.
This means that our climate on Earth is not only affected by what affects our Sun, but is also affected by what affects the cosmic background radiation density directly. The cosmic radiation is deemed to be constant, simply because we have no long-term historic records available that prove otherwise. However, now that the space age is upon us, we are able to detect phenomena that no one ever dreamed off during the 'blind' ages. It is now possible to detect and map interstellar 'clouds' that affect cosmic radiation concentration, and explore the interaction of the current local cloud, as shown below, with the heliosphere of our solar system that is created by the outflow of the solar winds.
When one looks at the vast galactic maze of interacting electric currents in plasma flows, and moving clouds of cosmic radiation, considering that the entire galaxy is itself constantly in motion, it would be enormously surprising if anything within it was constant at all.
The countless types of interacting current-flows, in such vast maze of stars, which a galaxy is, all put together, determine our climate on Earth.
One thing that modern space technology has shown beyond any reasonable doubt, is the evermore-widely acknowledged fact that the terrestrial climate is not determined by the minuscule actions that human activity can add to the scene of the astronomically large galactic influences on the Sun and the Earth. There is presently no such thing possible as a manmade climate change, nor will there likely be one in the foreseeable future. We simply don't have the power to compete with the power of the Universe.
Oh, if we only would have this power and affect our climate at will, then we might have a chance to avoid the next glaciations cycle of the Pleistocene Ice Age Epoch that we are currently in. But that hope takes us into the land of pure dreaming, doesn't it? Let's not bet our life on that.
So, what is happening in terms of the cosmic influence on the present?
We are currently in a cycle of gradual reduction of the electric intensity affecting the Sun. Since sunspots are evidence of localized overload conditions that rupture the double-layer plasma sheet around the Sun, and enable massive amounts of solar plasma to escape into space, causing solar flares and magnetic storms, a reduction of the electric intensity affecting the solar system would naturally reflect itself in fewer sunspots. And this is exactly what we are seeing.
According to a report by NASA-Science the number of spotless days has increased over the last 50 years, which makes the year 2008 a record year in this trend of reduced solar activity. If the trend continues, 2008 would become the least-energetic year on record going back to the beginning of the last century, and more so, 2009. Without the sunspots that result from solar flaring we will have colder temperatures on Earth. The solar flairs and associated magnet storms have a shielding effect for our climate as they deflect a portion of the cosmic background radiation that increased cloud formation. A loss of this shielding causes colder climates without fail.
In the same manner as we see a reduction of the sunspot activity, do we see a reduction of the intensity of the solar winds, which is likewise an effect of reduced galactic electric-intensity. According to another report by NASA Science, the solar winds have become cooler over the last 50 years, by 13%, which might be indicative that we are already in the boundary zone to next glaciation cycle of the of the Pleistocene Ice Age that has gripped the Earth for the last two million years.
The current interglacial period is statistically at its end. The falling off, of the solar wind intensity and its speed over the last 50 years may be an early indication that transition period has already begun. The high speed of the solar winds, accelerated electrically into the million-miles-per-hour range, has slowed by 3% since measurements begun, and the density of the solar wind has faded by 20%. Likewise, as the result of the reduced solar-wind pressure the heliosphere that contains the solar system's internal 'space weather' has shrunk, which is determined by the solar wind-pressure. The heliosphere creates a large plasma-flow shield around the entire solar system, typically extending to twice the extent of the solar system itself (The blue sphere below), shielding the Earth to some degree from the interstellar clouds of higher cosmic radiation.
With this protective shield now in the process of shrinking in its density, the Earth becomes increasingly bombarded with high-energy cosmic radiation. A 20% increase in high-energy electrons, a component of the cosmic radiation, has been observed. (See NASA - on Cosmic Rays) The superimposed lessening of solar flares amplifies the effect of increased cosmic radiation reaching us, affecting cloud formation and the climate on Earth.
NASA's Ulysses mission flew a satellite around the sun in a polar orbit between 1998 and 2008 observing the solar wind distribution.
Between its 1st and 3rd orbit a 30% reduction in solar wind pressure was measured. This is significant, because the solar wind pressure determines the strength of the heliosphere. The Ulysses satellite also recorded at the time a 30% reduction of the Sun's underlying magnetic field.
In other words, the Sun is getting weaker. But since the Sun is not its own master, but is merely a catalyst for the cosmic electric power, the electric density surrounding the solar system is weakening. This means that the Ice Age is coming. Get the fur coats out. A significant transition has begun.
The resulting increase in the intensity of cosmic radiation has a large effect on the intensity of the cloud formation on Earth, and thereby on our climate. Increased cosmic radiation is causing increased ionization in the Earth's troposphere where the weather is created, which is reflected in more intense cloud formation and cooler climates, as the increased cloudiness deflects a larger portion of the warmth of the sunlight back into space. Increased cloud formation also reduces the water-vapor content of the troposphere. Since the heat-shielding effect of water vapor amounts to 97% of the global greenhouse shield (less than 3% comes from carbon gases), increased cosmic radiation thereby also reduces the global greenhouse effect.
The result is that with the loss of the moderating function of the greenhouse effect, the global climate is becoming increasingly colder overall, especially on cloudy days, and becomes hotter during sunny days. The overall effect is global climatic cooling, which indeed reflects the harsher winters that have been experienced in recent years since 1998. This is indeed what is being reported, increasingly, from across the world.
What is unknown at the present time is the extent to which the heliosphere is shielding us from cosmic radiation. One day the spacecrafts Voyager 1 and 2 will cross the threshold of the heliosphere to explore the cosmic radiation in the space beyond, and with it the shielding effect of the heliosphere. (Image above - NASA Science)
The reduced electric environment that presently causes this global cooling is also reflected in the overall reduction of the Sun's magnetic field that reaches deep into space. The reduced intensity of inflowing electric currents has corresponding reduced the electric currents flowing inside the Sun, which produce the magnetic field effect. An overall reduction of 30% of the Sun's magnetic field-intensity has been observed over the last 50 years. Now we are at the point when the sunspot counts are unnaturally low. We may soon be back to the solar conditions of 1913, which had 311 spotless days and had produced cold climates and generally dry conditions, for which the Dust Bowl decades became infamous. We do not know, of course, for how long the current cooling trend will last, and if it will reverse itself at all, or will start the long-expected transition into the next Ice Age cycle that we are not prepared for, that may cool the world by as much as twenty degrees.
Here is where the classes of perception come into play again.
In the global warming mythology that is squarely based on an entopic perception of a winding-down and self-collapsing Universe, the Earth is deemed to be an isolated entity, gravitationally bound to the Sun, that is itself deemed isolated from the rest of the Universe as if the Universe did not exist. Like in the days of Ptolemy, the cosmological perception has become completely Earth centered. The perception tells us that all the changes observed on the Earth have to be man-made, as nothing else is deemed to affect the Earth. This perception is dangerous, but it isn't anything new. It is merely the extension of the entopic perception of man that has been conjured up by the Venetian monk Giamarria Ortes who spoke about overpopulation as a weapon to wreck the development-oriented perception of man that stood behind the Golden Renaissance, and the next renaissance in the mid-1600s that powered the founding of the USA, which altogether proved mankind to be a developing species with an infinite potential in self-development and the development of civilization.
Ortes served the interests of empire that cannot exist in a developing world. Thus the entopic class of perceptions were invented and put high on the agenda. Out of it came the Poor Laws of Malthus, who had plagiarized Ortes, which spawned social Darwinism built on Malthus, and the Eugenics movement by Darwin's cousin, Francis Galton.
Since Adolf Hitler gave the Eugenics movement a bad image, the same forces that stood behind it created the modern environmentalist movement and the depopulation movement of empire, topped off by the global warming dogma (a hoax) that demands the virtual shutdown of human activity, especially the energy production on which human life depends. In addition, the same entopic movement has also shut down science and scientific development, especially truthfulness in science. And so we face the potential near return of the Ice Age with a society that is fast asleep, and steeped in economic self-destruction of such an extent that it makes it virtually impossible for society to face the return of the Ice Age in the near term, with the needed indoor agriculture fully developed, that will most certainly be required to protect the global food supply in an Ice Age environment.
Of course it cannot be determined what the future will be for the Earth will be as the result of the current cooling trend, by which the Ice Age transition may have already begun, because nobody knows if the current trend will continue, and if so, will continue in a linear fashion or escalate exponentially.
If the trend continues as it is, it might result in another Little Ice Age as we had it in the 1600s, when the sunspot-count was extremely low for a long period. The current cooling trend might also reverse itself before we get to the point of another Little Ice Age. But this might not happen. The trend could just as readily intensify and cause the statistically expected transition to the next big Ice Age.
The Earth is currently in the grip of the Pleistocene Ice Age that began 2 million years ago and is interrupted roughly every 100,000 years for brief periods of warm climates (the interglacial climates) each lasting roughly 12,000 years, if that. The current interglacial has statistically run its course. Is it therefore about to end?
Since we are dealing with very long timeframes here that are governed by galactic events, it is not possible to predict the day or year when the next transition will begin, but we do know from ice core data that the cyclical Ice Age has faithfully returned for many hundreds of thousands of years.
It has been discovered from analyzing ice core samples that during the glaciation period, especially in the early stages when the big temperature swings can happen, the global average temperature could drop as much as 20 degrees centigrade, eliminating almost all outdoor agriculture. In this period much of the northern landmass will likely become covered very quickly with snows that won't melt, accumulating over time into ice sheets that eventually become thousands of feet thick. All of this is determined by movements and dynamic cycles that affect the electric flows within the galaxy that affects the electric flux density that gets to the Sun and is reflected in changes of the sunspot cycles.
While the Universe has likely not changed significantly in the brief span of the interglacial period, mankind has changed dramatically. For the first time in the ongoing development of life on this planet, mankind, as the most advanced species of life that ever trod the Earth, has created the technological and scientific potential to survive a coming-up Ice Age unharmed. Whether mankind will utilize its self-created potential, and create for itself an Ice Age Renaissance that takes the sting out of the coming long cold spell remains yet to be seen. Failing that, much of mankind will likely become extinct by its failure. The principle that enables us to succeed, feeding 6-10 billion people from indoor agricultural resources, or other industrial resources, is now at hand, and has been so for some time. It has powered every renaissance that ever was. It is is none other than the Principle of the General Welfare, and beyond that the Principle of Universal Love. On these two principles rests the survival of mankind in the ever changing Universe that has turned the Earth many times before into an ice planet, during almost 90% of the last 2 million years.
Of course, since the Universe is a largely electrically active Universe, we might yet discover how to harness the galactic electric flows, to power with them also our tiny human world on this planet, and thereby assure for us an energy rich and boundless future. And the time for this to start should be now, and indeed, it might not be too far off. The breakthrough the opens the horizon for us to our boundless future is located in mankind's stepping away from the entopic class of perceptions that enable and empower the empires, and cause the collapse of the human world by the folly of its delusion and artificial self-devolution. But why shouldn't we be able to deal with these things as the tallest species of life on the planet. What are the difficulties in comparison with the principles involved? It is noteworthy here to remember that the term "man," standing for mankind, signified "mind."
"Man equals mind," is how mankind had once recognized itself in distant ages, which remains still valid and always will.
Kristian Olaf Bernhard Birkeland - pioneer of modern space
- Thunderbolts archive
Relevant Links from the archive above:
Relevant Links from the archive above: